E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia

Parmelia sulcata Taylor
Hammered crottle

Introduction to the Lichens

© Curtis Bjork  Email the photographer   (Photo ID #22615)

E-Flora BC Static Map
Distribution of Parmelia sulcata
Details about map content are available here
Click on the map dots to view record details.

Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria map

Species Information

Click on the image below to view an expanded illustration for this species.

Illustration By: Trevor Goward

Medium stratified foliose lichens, corticate above and below, sorediate or isidiate or not, checkered pseudocyphellate (in BC), lobes loosely attached to rather closely appressed, elongate, averaging to 1.5–10 mm wide, thin. Upper surface whitish or pale greyish blue, somewhat shiny. Lower surface blackening, shiny, bearing short or rather long, simple or branched rhizines. Medulla white. Photobiont green. Apothecia located over upper surface, disc brown; spores simple, ellipsoid, colourless, 8 per ascus. Over rock and trees.

Notes: Parmelia is primarily a boreal and temperate genus consisting of 39 species worldwide. Eight of these are reported for North America and seven occur in B.C. As originally circumscribed by Acharius in 1803, Parmelia encompassed an enormous assemblage of foliose lichens, including Lobaria, Pannaria and Xanthoria. Beginning in the latter half of the 19th century, and apparently concluding only in the past decade, lichenologists have divided Parmelia into dozens of new genera, most of which are now widely accepted. Local species accommodated until recently in Parmelia are now dispersed among the following genera: Ahtiana, Arctoparmelia, Flavopunctelia, Hypotrachyna, Melanelia, Neofuscelia, Punctelia, and Xanthoparmelia.
Species description:
Soredia and/or isidia present (rarely sparse); ecology various AND Thallus sorediate; soredia dull, confined to discrete soralia
Cortex K+ yellow, medulla K+ yellow becoming red, PD+ orange.
Atranorin and salazinic acid.

Source: Lichens of British Columbia

Habitat / Range

Habitat: Common over trees throughout, also infrequent over acid rock
World Distribution: circumpolar, N to AK, S to CA.

Source: Lichens of British Columbia

Taxonomic and Nomenclatural Links

Additional Range and Status Information Links

Additional Photo Sources

General References