Perennial herb from a branching, woody stem-base; stems several to many, tufted, ascending to erect, 20-70 cm tall, somewhat woody at the base, smooth below, usually minutely hairy above especially in the inflorescence, but not glandular.
Opposite, unstalked or short-stalked on vigorous shoots, broadly lanceolate to elliptic or oblong-egg-shaped, 2-9 cm long, saw-toothed to jagged-toothed or sometimes nearly entire, often wavy-edged, essentially smooth; upper leaves sometimes clasping-based.
Inflorescence terminal, of 1 to 5 whorled clusters of stalked flowers, the lower whorls often open, the upper compact; corollas deep blue to purple, tubular, 1.5-2.5 cm long, smooth inside and out or sometimes hairy within at base of lower lip, 2-lipped, the upper lip 2-lobed, the lower lip 3-lobed, the lobes smooth; calyces 5-9 mm long, 5-lobed, the lobes fringed with hairs and sometimes irregularly cleft; fertile stamens 4, the anthers smooth except for a hairy fringe along the sutures; sterile stamen yellow-bearded on the upper half.
Capsules, 5-8 mm long, usually slightly exceeding the appressed calyx lobes; seeds numerous, 1-1.5 mm long.
If more than one illustration is available for a species (e.g., separate illustrations were provided for two subspecies) then links to the separate images will be provided below. Note that individual subspecies or varietal illustrations are not always available.
Illustration Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia
||Value / Class
Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
of field plots
species was recorded in:
BEC Zone Class
All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in
|AT(1), CWH(5), ESSF(5), ICH(5), IDF(2), MH(1), MS(1)|
Source: Klinkenberg 2013