E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia

Pinus banksiana Lamb.
jack pine
Pinaceae (Pine family)

Introduction to Vascular Plants

© Virginia Skilton  Email the photographer   (Photo ID #71180)

E-Flora BC Static Map
Distribution of Pinus banksiana
Click here to view our NEW interactive map and legend
Details about map content are available here
Click on the map dots to view record details.


Jack Pine is a tall evergreen coniferous species of tree that is rare in the northeastern corner of the province.

Species Information

Click on the image below to view an expanded illustration for this species.

Tree to 30 m tall; straight and columnar with narrow rounded crown; bark reddish-brown to blackish, cracked at the base and somewhat flaky above.
Needles in groups of two, not twisted, 1-4 cm long; deep green.
Seed cones egg-shaped, lopsided, 3-6 cm long; bracts stiff, not armed; serotinous; pollen cones reddish green in clusters at tips of branches.
Hybridizes with P. contorta var. latifolia; these have been named P. x murraybanksiana Righter & Stockwell.

Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia

USDA Species Characteristics

Flower Colour:
Blooming Period:
Late Spring
Fruit/Seed characteristics:
Colour: Brown
Present over the Fall
Source:  The USDA

Habitat / Range

Dry slopes in the montane zone: rare in extreme NE BC; N to NT, E to PQ, PE and NS, and S to MN, MS, IL and NY.

Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia


Ecological Framework for Pinus banksiana

The table below shows the species-specific information calculated from
original data (BEC database) provided by the BC Ministry of Forests and Range.
(Updated August, 2013)

Site Information
Value / Class




Elevation (metres) 440 505 620
Slope Gradient (%) 0 1 5
Aspect (degrees)
[0 - N; 90 - E; 180 - S; 270 - W]
50 49 50
Soil Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
1 3 6
Modal Nutrient Regime
Number of field plots
 species was recorded in:
Modal BEC Zone Class
All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in: BWBS(5)


The climate type for this species, as reported in the: "British Columbia plant species codes and selected attributes. Version 6 Database" (Meidinger et al. 2008), is not evaluated, unknown or variable.

Synonyms and Alternate Names

Pinus divaricata (Aiton) Sudw.

Taxonomic and Nomenclatural Links

Additional Photo Sources

General References