Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don
western white pine
Pinaceae (Pine family)

Introduction to Vascular Plants


© Val George     (Photo ID #83579)


E-Flora BC Static Map

Distribution of Pinus monticola
Click here to view the full interactive map and legend


This is an evergreen coniferous species of tree that can be 50 m tall or taller.

Species Information

Tree to 50 m tall, sometimes taller; bark thin, grey and smooth when young, developing into small, squarish scales, greyish where flakes exposed, cinnamon brown underneath; young twigs puberulent.
Needles in fives, (3) 5-10 cm long; light blue-green.
Seed cones pendant at ends of upper branches, yellow-green to purple when young, turning yellowish-brown, 15-25 cm long when mature; scales thin; pollen cones yellow, clustered.

SourceThe Illustrated Flora of British Columbia


If more than one illustration is available for a species (e.g., separate illustrations were provided for two subspecies) then links to the separate images will be provided below. Note that individual subspecies or varietal illustrations are not always available.

USDA Species Characteristics

Flower Colour:
Blooming Period:
Mid Spring
Fruit/Seed characteristics:
Colour: Brown
Present from Summer to Fall
Source:  The USDA


Ecological Framework for Pinus monticola

The table below shows the species-specific information calculated from
original data (BEC database) provided by the BC Ministry of Forests and Range.
(Updated August, 2013)

Site Information
Value / Class




Elevation (metres)
877 0 2145
Slope Gradient (%)
25 0 150

Aspect (degrees)
[0 - N; 90 - E; 180 - S; 270 - W]

204 0 360
Soil Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
3 0 8
Modal Nutrient Regime
# of field plots
 species was recorded in:
Modal BEC Zone Class

All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in

CDF(2), CWH(350), ESSF(136), ICH(990), IDF(70), MH(49), MS(58), PP(1), SBS(1)

Habitat and Range

Moist to dry slopes in the lowland and montane zones; frequent in S BC; E to SW AB and S to CA, NV, ID, and MT.

SourceThe Illustrated Flora of British Columbia


Synonyms and Alternate Names:
Pinus strobus var. monticola (Douglas ex D. Don) Nutt.