Perennial herb from a stout taproot; stems erect, numerous, simple, hollow, smooth or sometimes hairy above when young, 25-45 (60) cm tall.
Basal leaves lanceolate to oblanceolate, smooth, several-veined, 10-45 cm long, 1-3.5 cm wide, narrowed at the base to the distinct stalks, entire; stem leaves lacking.
Inflorescence of short, dense, bracteate spikes, the spikes short at first then elongate, 5-15 cm long; corollas greenish to brownish, 4-lobed, the lobes 1.5-2 mm long, spreading; bracts shorter than the flowers; stamens conspicuous.
Capsules, egg-shaped, 5-7 mm long; seeds 1-2, black, slightly concave, roughened.
If more than one illustration is available for a species (e.g., separate illustrations were provided for two subspecies) then links to the separate images will be provided below. Note that individual subspecies or varietal illustrations are not always available.
Illustration Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia
||Value / Class
Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
of field plots
species was recorded in:
BEC Zone Class
All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in
Source: Klinkenberg 2013
"The family Plantaginaceae includes three genera and an estimated 250-275 species from diverse habitats throughout the world (Pilger 1937). In Canada, the family is represented by two genera containing seven introduced species and ten native species"(Bassett 1973).
Bassett, I. John. 1973. The Plantains of Canada. Monograph No. 7. Canada Department of Agriculture.