General: Perennial herb from a slightly thickened taproot; stems erect, solitary, branched above, long-hairy, exuding milky juice when broken, 15-80 cm tall.
Leaves: Basal leaves arrowhead-shaped, long stalked, blades irregularly toothed, glabrous, 3.5-17 cm long, 0.5-11 cm wide; stem leaves similar below, middle and lower ones with winged stalks, becoming short-stalked or unstalked, reduced upwards.
Flowers: Heads with strap-shaped flowers, numerous in an open or round-topped inflorescence; involucres 10-13 mm tall; involucral bracts lance-oblong, the principal ones about 8, sparsely long-hairy; ray flowers white or sometimes pinkish.
Fruits: Achenes finely lined between the nerves, cylindric or tapering to the summit, glabrous, 4-6 mm long; pappus of brownish hairlike bristles.
A shade-tolerant/intolerant, submontane to montane, Pacific North American forb. Occurs in maritime to submaritime wet cool mesothermal climates on fresh to moist, nitrogenrich soils (Moder and Mull humus forms); its occurrence decreases with increasing elevation and continentality. Grows on water-receiving and water-collecting sites (usually stream-edge sites) where it inhabits recently deposited mineral materials. Sporadic in opencanopy broad-leaved forests; often associated with Adiantum pedatum, Aruncus dioicus, and Oplopanax homdus on flooded sites. A nitrophytic species characteristic of Moder and Mull humus forms.
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2020. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
2021-05-11 9:10:01 AM
The information contained in the E-Flora atlas pages is derived from expert
sources as cited in each section. This information is scientifically based.
E-Flora also acts as a portal to other sites via deep links. As
always, users should refer to the original sources for complete information.
E-Flora BC is not responsible for the accuracy or completeness of the