E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia

Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii
coast Douglas-fir (Douglas-fir)
Pinaceae (Pine family)

Introduction to Vascular Plants

© Thayne Tuason  Email the photographer   (Photo ID #76559)

E-Flora BC Static Map
Distribution of Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii
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This is a tall evergreen coniferous species of tree that is common in British Columbia.

Species Information

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Tree up to 70 (occasionally to 90) m tall; rounded to flattened crown when older, young trees with pyramidal crown; bark very thick, rough, dark brown.
Needles (1.5) 2-3 (3.5) cm long, spreading around twig or turned upward, obtuse to abruptly sharp-pointed tip; color varies from yellow-green to dark-green in var. menziesii to blue-green in var. glauca, lower surface with two longitudinal bands of white stomata.
Seed cones drooping, yellowish- to purplish-green when young, turning reddish-brown, soon deciduous; 6-10 cm long in var. menziesii, 4-7 cm in var. glauca; scales with 3-lobed tip, the centre one the longest; pollen cones yellow to reddish, 6-10 mm long.
Two varieties are recognized in BC:

1. Cones mostly 6-10 cm long, the bracts straight and appressed toward the cone tip; leaves deep (yellowish) green; primarily coastal.................. var. menziesii (coast Douglas-fir)

1. Cones mostly 4-7 cm long, the bracts appressed to spreading or reflexed; leaves more bluish-green; primarily interior................. var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco (Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir)

Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia

Habitat / Range

Moist to dry slopes, river terraces and flats in the lowland and montane zones; common in S BC, infrequent northward to C BC; E to SW AB and S to CA and MX.

Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia


Ecological Framework for Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii

The table below shows the species-specific information calculated from
original data (BEC database) provided by the BC Ministry of Forests and Range.
(Updated August, 2013)

Site Information
Value / Class




Elevation (metres) 40 546 1565
Slope Gradient (%) 0 20 75
Aspect (degrees)
[0 - N; 90 - E; 180 - S; 270 - W]
40 189 318
Soil Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
1 3 6
Modal Nutrient Regime
Number of field plots
 species was recorded in:
Modal BEC Zone Class
All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in: CDF(6), CWH(18), IDF(6), MH(2)


The climate type for this species, as reported in the: "British Columbia plant species codes and selected attributes. Version 6 Database" (Meidinger et al. 2008), is not evaluated, unknown or variable.

Synonyms and Alternate Names

Pseudotsuga mucronata (Raf.) Sudw.
Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Lamb.) Britton

Taxonomic and Nomenclatural Links

Additional Photo Sources

General References