Extremely variable, but predominantly in well-drained sites; epiphytic, especially up tree bases, on rock, on humus, rotten logs and even sand. Most frequent in coniferous forests but also extending into tundra and to sunny sites near sea level. World Distribution
Extremely widespread in cooler climates at all latitudes. In eastern North America extending southward to New York State but in the west to South America, especially at higher elevations.