General: Plants from a slender rhizome and a short, scarcely enlarged, horizontal tuber.
Stems: Stems 5-20 cm tall.
Leaves: Leaves mostly whorled or densely crowded near the stem apex; primary leaves 3-8, lanceolate to oblanceolate or spatulate, widest at or above the midpoint, apices acute to rounded, 2-6 cm; stem leaves reduced in size, alternate, 0.2-2 cm
Flowers: Flowers 1-2 per plant; corollas usually white (sometimes faintly pink-tinged), 5-9 mm wide; corolla lobes ovate to lanceolate, apices acute to acuminate; pedicels equalling or longer than the leaves, sparsely to densely glandular, 1.5-5.5 cm. Flowering (Apr) May-Jul (Aug)
Fruits: Fruits globose capsules, valvate; seeds black to reddish-brown, with a deciduous, white, net-like coating.
1. Primary stem leaves lanceolate, oblanceolate or egg-shaped, rather abruptly sharp-pointed to blunt, 1-5 (8) cm long; reduced leaves scattered along stem below the terminal whorl; corollas usually white, 10-16 mm wide; flower stalks longer than main leaves; tubers not conspicuously enlarged, horizontal.....................T. europea ssp. arctica
1. Primary stem leaves broadly egg-shaped to elliptic, gradually tapering to sharp points, 3-10 cm long, all others reduced to tiny bracts along the stem below the terminal whorl, corollas pinkish to rose, or somewhat pinkish-lavender, 8-15 mm wide; flower stalks shorter than leaves; tubers 1-2 cm, ascending to erect.................T. borealis ssp. latifolia
Source: Illustrated Flora of British Columbia
Habitat / Range
Moist to wet bogs, swamps, streambanks, meadows, and coniferous forests in the lowland, montane, and subalpine zones. Frequent in coastal, nw, and se BC; AK east to NWT, south to CA, ID; Eurasia.
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2020. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
2021-05-18 8:00:33 PM
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