Perennial herb from a rhizome, with stolons, 10-15 cm tall/long; stems lacking.
Basal leaves heart-shaped to kidney-shaped, smooth, 1.0-2.5 cm long in flower, to 3.5 cm long in fruit, the margins blunt-toothed; stipules lanceolate, entire, papery; bracts on the flowering stalk inserted above the middle and only 2 leaves produced with the flowers; stem leaves lacking.
Inflorescence of single, axillary flowers; petals 5, violet to lilac, the lower petal 9-16 mm long including the 2- to 3-mm long spur, the lower 3 usually with darker lines, the lateral pair smooth to sparsely bearded; sepals 5, narrowly egg-shaped; style heads smooth.
Capsules, elliptical, smooth; seeds brown.
As evident from the confusion existing in the current literature the relationships among V. epipsila ssp. repens, V. palustris and V. pallens require a critical investigation (Packer 1991). The main concern in BC is with V. epipsila ssp. repens and V. palustris, which intergrade and are often difficult to separate. Some Russian and North American taxonomists regard V. epipsila ssp. repens to be a quite distinct species and their name for our species would be V. achyrophora (V. epipsiloides).
||Value / Class
Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
of field plots
species was recorded in:
BEC Zone Class
All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in
|BWBS(2), ESSF(5), SBS(6)|
Source: Klinkenberg 2013