E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia

Viola renifolia A. Gray
kidney-leaved violet (white violet)
Violaceae (Violet family)

Introduction to Vascular Plants

© Jamie Fenneman  Email the photographer   (Photo ID #24668)

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Distribution of Viola renifolia
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Species Information

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Perennial herb from a short root stalk, without stolons, plants up to 15 cm tall; stems lacking.
Basal leaves heart- to kidney-shaped, the blades 1.5-3.5 cm long, 2-6 cm wide, toothed, smooth or hairy, especially beneath, the stalks 3-15 cm long, hairy; stem leaves lacking; stipules lanceolate, 3-10 mm long, toothed.
Inflorescence of single, axillary flowers; petals 5, white, the lower petal 10-15 mm long including the 1- to 1.5-mm long spur, the lower 3 purplish-pencilled, beardless; sepals 5, lanceolate; style heads smooth, slightly bilobed.
Capsules, nearly globular, smooth, usually purple; seeds brown.

Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia

Habitat / Range

Mesic to moist woodlands, open forests, streambanks, swamps and meadows in the montane and subalpine zones; infrequent throughout BC east of the Coast-Cascade Mountains, rare on C Vancouver Island; N to AK, YT and NT, E to NF and S to ME, NH, PA, MI, MN, SD, CO and ID.

Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia


Ecological Framework for Viola renifolia

The table below shows the species-specific information calculated from
original data (BEC database) provided by the BC Ministry of Forests and Range.
(Updated August, 2013)

Site Information
Value / Class




Elevation (metres) 13 1014 2340
Slope Gradient (%) 0 15 205
Aspect (degrees)
[0 - N; 90 - E; 180 - S; 270 - W]
0 139 360
Soil Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
0 4 8
Modal Nutrient Regime
Number of field plots
 species was recorded in:
Modal BEC Zone Class
All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in: BAFA(1), BWBS(201), CWH(1), ESSF(108), ICH(48), IDF(27), MH(1), MS(35), PP(3), SBPS(21), SBS(180), SWB(23)


The climate type for this species, as reported in the: "British Columbia plant species codes and selected attributes. Version 6 Database" (Meidinger et al. 2008), is montane boreal & cool temperate.

Synonyms and Alternate Names

Viola renifolia var. brainerdii (Greene) Fernald
Viola renifolia var. renifolia

Taxonomic and Nomenclatural Links

Additional Photo Sources

General References