E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia

Viola canadensis var. rugulosa L. (Greene) C.L. Hitchc.
Canada violet (creepingroot violet)
Violaceae (Violet family)

Introduction to Vascular Plants
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Distribution of Viola canadensis var. rugulosa
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Species Information

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Perennial herb from a rhizome, usually with stolons; stems erect, smooth to hairy, 10-40 cm tall.
Basal leaves heart-shaped, toothed, smooth to hairy, the blades 5-9 cm long, 6-12 cm wide, the stalks 15-30 cm long, smooth to hairy; stem leaves similar, the stalks shorter than the blades; stipules lanceolate, 1-2 cm long, entire or fringed.
Inflorescence of single, axillary flowers; petals 5, white, yellow-based, the lower petal 12-24 mm long including the 1- to 2-mm long spur, the lower 3 usually purplish pencilled, the lateral pair bearded; sepals 5, lanceolate, usually fringed or hairy; style heads bearded.
Capsules, egg-shaped, granular to short-hairy; seeds brown.

Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia

Habitat / Range

Moist to dry woodlands, open forests and meadows in the lowland and montane zones; common throughout BC, except absent in extreme NW BC; N to AK, YT and NT, E to PQ and S to IL, IO, NE, NM, AZ, ID and OR.

Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia


Ecological Framework for Viola canadensis var. rugulosa

The table below shows the species-specific information calculated from
original data (BEC database) provided by the BC Ministry of Forests and Range.
(Updated August, 2013)

Site Information
Value / Class




Elevation (metres) 740 740 740
Slope Gradient (%) 0 0 0
Aspect (degrees)
[0 - N; 90 - E; 180 - S; 270 - W]
Soil Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
5 5 5
Modal Nutrient Regime
Number of field plots
 species was recorded in:
Modal BEC Zone Class
All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in: ICH(1)


The climate type for this species, as reported in the: "British Columbia plant species codes and selected attributes. Version 6 Database" (Meidinger et al. 2008), is not evaluated, unknown or variable.

Synonyms and Alternate Names

Viola canadensis subsp. rydbergii (Greene) House
Viola rugulosa Greene
Viola rydbergii Greene

Taxonomic and Nomenclatural Links

Additional Photo Sources

General References