E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia

Viola praemorsa Douglas ex Lindl. subsp. praemorsa
yellow montane violet (canary violet)
Violaceae (Violet family)

Introduction to Vascular Plants

© Adolf Ceska  Email the photographer   (Photo ID #11313)

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Distribution of Viola praemorsa ssp. praemorsa
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Species Information

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General:
Perennial herb from a fibrous root, without stolons; stems erect, sparsely to densely hairy, largely underground but the aerial stems 6-30 cm tall.
Leaves:
Basal leaves egg-shaped to lanceolate, entire or slightly wavy, sparsely to densely hairy, the blades 2-10 cm long, 1-3.5 cm wide, the stalks 3-15 cm long; stem leaves lacking or few, similar; stipules joined to the stem with the free end entire to toothed, sparsely to densely hairy.
Flowers:
Inflorescence of single, axillary flowers; petals 5, yellow, the lower petal 12-20 mm long including the 1- to 2-mm long spur, the lower 3 usually brown-penicilled and sometimes tinged with brown, the lateral pair bearded; sepals 5, lanceolate; style heads bearded.
Fruits:
Capsules, smooth to hairy, 6-11 mm long; seeds dark brown.
Notes:
The ssp. linguaefolia (Nutt. ex T.& G.) Baker & Clausen ex Peck may occur in the Rocky Mountains of extreme SE BC. This subspecies can be distinguished from ssp. praemorsa by its longer, narrower stem leaves and the wedge-shaped leaf base.

Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia

Habitat / Range

Dry grassy slopes and oak woodlands in the lowland zone; rare on SE Vancouver Island and adjacent islands; S to CA.

Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia

Ecology

Ecological Framework for Viola praemorsa ssp. praemorsa

The table below shows the species-specific information calculated from
original data (BEC database) provided by the BC Ministry of Forests and Range.
(Updated August, 2013)

Site Information
Value / Class

Minimum

Average

Maximum

Elevation (metres) 630 1320 2260
Slope Gradient (%) 0 28 80
Aspect (degrees)
[0 - N; 90 - E; 180 - S; 270 - W]
60 140 340
Soil Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
1 3 5
Modal Nutrient Regime
Class
C
Number of field plots
 species was recorded in:
24
Modal BEC Zone Class
PP
All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in: BG(2), ICH(1), IDF(6), MS(1), PP(7)

Climate

The climate type for this species, as reported in the: "British Columbia plant species codes and selected attributes. Version 6 Database" (Meidinger et al. 2008), is not evaluated, unknown or variable.

Synonyms and Alternate Names

Viola nuttallii subsp. praemorsa (Douglas ex Lindl.) Piper
Viola nuttallii var. praemorsa (Douglas ex Lindl.) S. Watson

Taxonomic and Nomenclatural Links

Additional Photo Sources

General References