AdultThe adults of the Arctic Fritillary are the most variable of any Clossiana. After other species are eliminated, and with reference to the photos, this species can be determined with confidence. It is most often confused with the Freija Fritillary but lacks the large median triangular spot on the ventral hindwings.lt is the fourth of the four boreal species to emerge, and flies from late July onward. Only a very occasional late-emerging female Freija Fritillary would be flying at the same time in the same habitat. In most of the historical North American literature, this species is treated as two species, C. chariclea and C. titania. Shepard (1998), however, showed that all North American forms are C. chariclea and that C. titania is a species restricted to the Palearctic.
SubspeciesThe populations from southwestern BC are the Tacoma Fritillary, C.c. rainieri (Barnes & McDunnough, 1913) (TL: Mt. Rainier, WA). The populations from central BC and northeastern BC are the boreal subspecies, C.c. grandis (Barnes & McDunnough, 1916) (TL: Hymers, ON). The populations from northwestern BC are best ascribed to C.c. butleri (W.H. Edwards, 1883) (TL: Cape Thompson, AK). These northwestern BC populations are intermediate between butleri and grandis, however.