Adults occur in cool pools of sluggish, clear creeks and small rivers, usually over sand or gravel; more abundant in cool acid waters of silt-bottomed bog ponds (Ref. 1998). Probably feed on phytoplankton and other algae, zooplankton, and aquatic insects (Ref. 1998). Oviparous, open substratum spawners (Ref. 205, 52559). Probably spawn in May or June over silty bottoms of calm waters (Ref. 1998). Predators may include brook trout, kingfishers, and mergansers (Ref. 1998).
. Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr 1991 A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p.