Adults form schools in lakes and slow-flowing areas of small and medium rivers. Most common around vegetation. Can withstand brackish waters for a limited period (Ref. 1998). Newly hatched individuals school near the shore, moving into deeper water in the summer (Ref. 4569). Feed mainly on aquatic insects and its larvae and some terrestrial insects (Ref. 10288); but also on planktonic crustaceans, mollusks, and small fishes (Ref. 1998). Preyed upon by fish-eating birds and mammals (Ref. 1998)
. Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr 1991 A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p.