Department of Fisheries and Oceans. 1999. Varnish Clams.
DFO Science Stock Status Report C6-13. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada.
Dinnel, P.A. and E. Yates. 2000. Biological and ecological assessments of Nuttallia obscurata inel, P.A. and E. Yates. 2000. Biological and ecological assessments of Nuttallia obscurata in North Puget Sound. Journal of Shellfish Research 19: 630.
Dudas, Sarah E., Iain J. McGaw and John F. Dowera. 2002. Selective crab predation on native and introduced bivalves in British Columbia. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 325 (1): 8-17.
Gillespie, Graham E., Antan C. Phillips, Debbie L. Paltzat and Tom W. Therriault. 2007. Distribution of Non-indigenous IntertidalSpecies on the Pacific Coast of Canada. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Nanaimo.
Ryder, J. M. 2007. Scoters and other birds feeding on purple varnish clams: Some observations at Spanish Banks, Vancouver, British Columbia. British Columbia Birds 16: 24-27. Available online.
Mills, Claudia. 2002. Nuttallia obscurata, the purple varnish clam
or the purple mahogany-clam. University of Washington. Available online.
Additional Useful References:
Harbo, Rick M. 2001. Shells & Shellfish of the Pacific Northwest. A Field Guide. Harbour Publishing, Madeira Park, BC.