Clarke, A. H. 1981. The freshwater molluscs of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario: 446pp.
Herrington, H. B. 1962. A revision of the Sphaeriidae of North America (Mollusca: Pelecypoda). Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, No. 118: 74pp.
Mackie, G. L. 2007. Biology of freshwater corbiculid and sphaeriid clams of North America. Ohio Biological Survey Bulletin New Series. Vol XV No. 3: 436pp.