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Baker, G. H., V. J. Barrett, R. Grey-Gardner and J. C. Buckfield. 1993. Abundance and life history of native and introduced earthworms (Annelida: Megascolecidae and Lumbricidae) in pasture soils in the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of S. Aust. 117 (1): 47-53.

Battigelli, Jeffrey Paul. 1988. Soil fauna communities in Cedar-Hemlock and Hemlock-Amabilis Fir forest types on northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. B.Sc. thesis, University of Victoria.

Garry Oak Ecosystem Recovery Team. 2003. Research Colloquium 2003: Abracts of Presentations. Pacific Forestry Centre.

Hendix, Paul F. (ed.) 1995. Earthworm ecology and biogeography in North America. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton.

Holmstrup, Martin. 1999. Cocoon production of Aporrectodea longa Ude and Aporrectodea rosea Savigny (Oligochaeta; Lumbricidae) in a Danish grass field. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 31 (7): 957-964.

Kaihatsu-Kyoku, Hokkaido. 1965. A report concerning soil conservation in grasslands by means of soil animals. (incomplete reference).

Lowe, Christopher and Kevin Butt. 2007. Life-cycle traits of the dimorphic earthworm species Allolobophora chlorotica (Savigny, 1826) under controlled laboratory conditions. Biology and Fertility of Soils (43) 4: . 495-499.

Marshall, Valin G. and William M. Fender. 1998. Native Earthworms of British Columbia forests. Northwest Science 72. Special Issue 2. Pages 101-102.

Marshall, Valin G. and William M. Fender. 2007. Native and Introduced Earthworms (Oligochaeta) of British Columbia, Canada. Megadrilogica 11 (4): 29-52.

McKey-Fender, Dorothy, William M. Fender and Valin G. Marshall. 1994. North American earthworms native to Vancouver Island and the Olympic Peninsula. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72: 1325-1339.

OPAL. 2009. Rosy-tipped worm (Aporrectodea rosea). Natural History Museum. Open airlaboratories. Accessed October 2009. Available:

Reynolds, John W. 1977. The Earthworms (Lumbricidae and Sparganophilidae) of Ontario. Life Science Miscellaneous Publications, Royal Ontario Museum. Toronto.

Reynolds, John Warren and Mark Julian Wetzel. 2004. Terrestrial Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata) in North America north of Mexico. Megadrilogica 9 (11): 71-97.

Reynolds, John Warren and Mark Julian Wetzel. 2008. Terrestrial Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata) in North America, including Mexico, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and Bermuda. Megadrilogica 12 (12): 157-204.

Scudder, G.G.E. 1996. . Terrestrial and freshwater invertebrates of British Columbia: priorities for inventory and descriptive research. Resarch Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Forests, and Wildlife Branch, British Columbia. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. Victoria, B.C. Work. Pap. 09/1996.

Sims, R. W. & Gerard, B.M. 1999.  Earthworms: Notes for the identification of British species. 4th Edition. Published for The Linnean Society of London and The Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association by Field Studies Council, Montford Bridge, Shrewsbury, UK.  Pp. 169.

Svendsen, Tina S. and Geoff H. Baker. 2002. Survival and growth of Aporrectodea longa (Lumbricidae) fed on sheep and cow dung with and without moxidectin residues. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 53 (4): 447-451.

WormWatch. 2009. Field guide to earthworms. Available: Accessed October 2009.


Please cite these pages as:

Author, date, page title. In:   Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2023. E-Fauna BC: Electronic Atlas of the Fauna of British Columbia []. Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. [Date Accessed]

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