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TICKS References Western north america

compiled by
King Wu, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Allred, D.M., D.E. Beck, and L.D. White. 1960. Ticks of the genus Ixodes in Utah. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin, Biological series 1(4):1-42.

Anastos, G., and C.N. Smith. 1957. The male, nymph, and larva of Ixodes brunneus Koch (Acarina:Ixodidae). J. Parasitol. 43(5):535-541.

Bennett, S.G., J.P. Webb, Jr., and P.W. Collins. 1989. Ixodes rugosus Bishopp (Acari: Ixodidae):description of larvae from Santa Rosa Island, California. Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 14(2):262-265.

Brinton, E.P., and D.E. Beck. 1963 Hard-bodied ticks of the Western United States, part 1. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin, Biological series 2(3):1-28.

Brinton, E.P., and D.E. Beck. 1963 Hard-bodied ticks of the Western United States, part 2,3. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin, Biological series 2(3):1-21.

Brinton, E.P., D.E. Beck, and D.M. Allred. 1965. Identification of the adults, nymphs and larvae of ticks of the genus Dermacentor Koch (Ixodidae) in the western United States. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin, Biological series 5(4):1-44.

Clifford, C.M., G.N. Kohls, and D.E. Sonenshine. 1964. The systematics of the subfamily Ornithodorine (Acarina:Argasidae). I. The genera and subgenera. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 57(4):429-437.

Clifford, C.M., D.E. Sonenshine, J.E. Keirans, and G.M. Kohls. 1973. Systematics of the subfamily Ixodinae (Acarina:Ixodidae). I. The subgenera of Ixodes. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 66(3):489-500.

Cooley, R.A. 1938. The genera Dermacentor and Otocentor (Ixodidae) in the United States, with studies in variation. U.S. Natl. Inst. Health Bull. 171:89 pp.

Cooley, R.A., and G.M. Kohls. 1944a. The Argasidae of North America, Central America, and Cuba. Amer. Midland Nat. Monogr. No. 1:152 pp.

Cooley, R.A., and G.M. Kohls. 1944b. The genus Amblyomma (Ixodidae) in the United States. J. Parasitol. 30(2):77-111.

Cooley, R.A., and G.M. Kohls. 1945. The genus Ixodes in North America. U.S. Natl. Inst. Health Bull. 184, 246 pp.

Cooley, R.A. 1946. The genera Boophilus, Rhipicephalus, and Haemaphysalis (Ixodidae) of the new world. U.S. Nat. Inst. Health Bull. 187:54 pp.

Dennis, D.T., T.S. Nekomoto, J.C. Victor, W.S. Paul, and J. Piesman, 1998. Reported distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari:Ixodidae) in the United States. J. Med. Entomol. 35(5):629-638.

Durden, L.A. and J.E. Keirans, 1996. Nymphs of the genus Ixodes (Acari:Ixodidae) of the United States: taxonomy, identification key, distribution, hosts and medical/veterinary importance. Thomas Say Publications in Entomology: Monographs, Entomological Society of America, i-iv, 95 pp.

Furman, D.P., and E.C. Loomis. 1984. The ticks of California. Bulletin of the California Insect Survey, University of California Publications, Volume 25, i-viii, 239 pp.

Gregson, J.D., 1941. Two new species of ticks from British Columbia. Can. Ent. 73:220-228

Gregson, J.D. 1942. A new species of tick found on shrews. Can Ent. 74:137-139.

Gregson, J. D. 1949. Notes on the occurrence of Ornithodoros hermisi in British Columbia, and probably relation to relapsing fever. Argasidae, Ixodoidea. Entomological Society of Britsh Columbia 45: 15-16.

Gregson, J.D. 1953. Records of the tick Otobius megnini (Dugès) from British Columbia. Proc. Ent. Soc. British Columbia 49:30.

Gregson, J.D. 1954. The male of Ixodes signatus Birula (Acari: Ixodidae). Can. Ent. 86:275-277.

Gregson, J.D. 1956. The Ixodoidea of Canada. Can. Dept. Agri. Publ. 930:92 pp.

Gregson, J.D. 1960. Morphology and functioning of the mouthparts of Dermacentor andersoni Stiles. Acta Tropica. 17(1):47-79.

Gregson, J.D., and G.M. Kohls. 1952. The male of Ixodes soricis Gregson. Can Ent. 84:185-188.

Hearle, E. 1938. The ticks of British Columbia. Sci. Agric. 18:341-354.

Herrin, C.S., and D.E. Beck. 1965. Observations on the biology, anatomy, and morphology of Otobius lagophilus Cooley and Kohls. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin, Biological series 6(2): 1-19.

Hixson, H. 1932. The life history and habits of Ixodes sculptus Neumann (Ixodidae). Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 7:35-42.

Horak, I.G., Camicas, J-L., and J.E. Keirans, 2002. The Argasidae, Ixodidae and Nuttalliellidae (Acari: Ixodida): a world list of valid tick names. Exp. & Appl. Acarology 28(1- 4):27-54.

Hoskins, J.D., and E.W. Cupp. 1988. Ticks of veterinary importance. Part II. The Argasidae family: identification, behavior, and associated diseases. Comp. Cont. Edu. Pract.Vet. 10(6):699-706.

Keirans, J.E., 1992. Systematics of the Ixodida (Argasidae, Ixodidae, Nuttalliellidae): an overview and some problems, pp.1-21. In B. Fivaz, T. Petney, and I. Horak [ed.], Tick Vector Biology, medical and veterinary aspects, Springer-Verlag, Berlin

Keirans, J.E., and C.M. Clifford. 1978. The genus Ixodes in the United States: a scanning electron microscope study and key to the adults. J. Med. Entomol, Suppl. 2:149 pp.

Keirans, J.E., and T.R. Litwak. 1989. Pictorial key to the adults of hard ticks, family Ixodidae (Ixodida: Ixodoidea), east of the Mississippi River. J. Med. Entomol. 26(5):435-448.

Keirans, J.E., L.A. Durden, and C.E. Hopla. 1993. Description of the immature stages of Ixodes(Pholeoixodes) baergi (Acari: Ixodidae), a parasite of cliff swallows in the United States. J. Med. Entomol. 30(4):735-739.

Kohls, G.M. 1947. Notes on the tick, Ixodes howelli Cooley and Kohls, with descriptions. J. Parsitol. 33(1):57-61.

Kohls, G.M. and C.M. Clifford, 1966. Three new species of Ixodes from Mexico and description of the male of I. auritulus Neumann, I. concepati Cooley and Kohls, and I. lasallei Mendez and Ortiz (Acarina: Ixodidae)

Kohls, G.M., and H. Hoogstraal. 1960. Observations on the subgenus Argas (Ixodoidea, Argasidae, Argas) 2. A. cooleyi, new species, from western North American birds. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 53(50):625-631.

Kohls, G.M., D.E. Sonenshine, and C.M. Clifford. 1965. The systematics of the subfamily Ornithodorinae (Acarina:Argasidae). II. Identification of the larvae of the western hemisphere and descriptions of three new species. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 58(3):331-364.

Kohls, G.M., H. Hoogstraal, C.M. Clifford, and M.N. Kaiser. 1970. The subgenus Persicargas (Ixodoidea, Argasidae, Argas). 9. Redescription and new world recods of Argas (P.) persicus (Oken), and resurrection, redescription, and records of A. (P.) radiatus Railliet, A.(P.) sanchezi Dugès, and A.(P.) miniatus Koch, new world ticks misidentified as A.(P.) persicus. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 63(2):590-606.

Rich. G.B. 1957. The ear tick, Otobius magnini (Dugès) (Acarina:Argasidae), and its record in British Columbia. Can. J. Com. Med. 21(12):415-418.

Robbins, R.G., and J.E. Keirans. 1992. Systematics and ecology of the subgenus Ixodiopsis (Acari:Ixodidae:Ixodes). Thomas Say Foundation 14:1-159.

Shemanchuk, J.A., and J.W. Kiceniuk. 1970. Ixodes spinipalpis Hadwen and Nuttall (Ixodidae) from southern Alberta. Can. J. Zool. 48(5):1142-1143.

Sonenshine, D.E. and G. Anastos. 1960. Observations on the life history of the bat tick Ornithodoros kelleyi (Acarina:Argasidae). J. Parasitol. 46(4):449-454.

Sonenshine, D.E. 1962. External anatomy of the bat tick Ornithodoros kelleyi Cooley and Kohls (Acarina:Argasidae). J. Parasitol. 48(3):470-485.

Sonenshine, D.E., C.M. Clifford, and G.M. Kohls. 1962. The identification of larvae of the genus Argas (Acarina:Argasidae). Acarologia 4(2):193-214.

Spencer, G.J. 1960. Two records of Ixodes signatus Birula and one of Ixodes uriae, white, marine bird ticks. Proc. Entomol. Soc. B.C. 57:46.

Spencer, G.J. 1963. Attacks on humans by Ixodes angustus Neumann, the coastal squirrel tick, and I. soricis Gregson, the shrew tick. Proc. Entomol. Soc. B.C. 60:40.

USDA, 1976. Ticks of Veterinary Importance. Agriculture Handbook No. 485

Vredevoe, Larisa. 2009. Ticks commonly encountered in California. Accessed October 2009. Available:

Walker, J.B., J.E. Keirans, and I.G. Horak. 2000. The genus Rhipicephalus (Acari, Ixodidae): a guide to the brown ticks of the world. Cambridge University Press. 643 pp.

Webb, J.P., Jr., S.G. Bennett, and G.L. Challer. 1990. The larval ticks of the genus Ixodes Latreille (Acari: Ixodidae) of California. Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 15(1): 73-124.

Wilkinson, P.R., R. Fyfe, and J.E.H. Martin. 1980. Further records of Ornithodoros ticks on Prairie Falcons and in bat-inhabited buildings in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 94(2):191-193.

Please cite these pages as:

Author, date, page title. In:   Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2023. E-Fauna BC: Electronic Atlas of the Fauna of British Columbia []. Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. [Date Accessed]

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