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Burkot, T. R. , B. S. Schneider, N. J. Pieniazek, C. M. Happ, J. S. Rutherford, S. B. Slemenda, E. Hoffmeister, G. O. Maupin and N. S. Zeidner. 2000. Babesia microti and Borrelia bissettii transmission by Ixodes spinipalpis ticks among prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster, in Colorado. Parasitology 121 (6): 595-599.

Camin, J. H. and R. W. Drenner. 1978. Climbing behavior and host-finding larval rabbit ticks (Haemaphysalis leporispalustris). Journal of Parasitology 64(5): 905-9.

Damrow, Todd. Howard Freedman, Robert S. Lane and Karen L. Preston. 1989.Is Ixodes (Ixodiopsis) angustus a Vector of Lyme Disease in Washington State? The Western Journal of Medicine 150 (5): 580-582.

Dennis, D. T., T. S. Nekomotoa, J. C. Victor, W. S. Paul, and J. Piesman. 1998. Reported distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the United States. Journal of Medical Entomology 35 (5): 629-638.

Easton, Emmett R. and Robert L. Goulding. 1974. Ectoparasites in two diverse habitats in western Oregon I: Ixodes (Acarina: Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 11 (4): 413-418.

Eisen, L., R. J. Eisen, and R. S. Lane. 2006. Geographical distribution patterns and habitat suitability models for presence of host-seeking ixodid ticks in dense woodlands of Mendocino County, California. Journal of Medical Entomology 43 (2): 415-227.

Egoscue, Harold J. 1956. Preliminary Studies of the Kit Fox in Utah. Journal of Mammalogy 37 (3): . 351-357.

Foley, Janet E., Nathan C. Nieto, S. Bernadette Clueit, Patrick Foley, William N. Nicholson and Richard N. Brown. 2007. Survey for zoonotic rickettsial pthaogens in Northern Flying Squirrels, Glaucomys sabrinus, in California. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43 (4): 684-689.

Frenot, Y., E. de Oliveira, M. Gauthier-Clerc, J. Deunff, A. Bellido and P. Vernon. 2001. Life cycle of the tick Ixodes uriae in penguin colonies: relationships with host breeding activity. International Journal for Parasitology 31 (10): 1040-1047.

George, John E., Bart Cook. 1979. Exokinetic responses of Argas cooleyi and Ornithodoroes concanensis (Acard: Ixodoidea: Argasidae) to various environmental temperatures. Journal of Medical Entomology, Volume 16, Number 4, 7 November 1979 , pp. 275-285(11).

Gregson, John D. 1956. The Ixodoideae of Canada. Canada Deapartment of Agriculture, Ottawa.

Gregson, J. D. 1971. Studies on two populations of Ixodes kingi Bishopp (Ixodidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology  49(5): 591–597.

Global Biodiversity Information Facility. 2009. TicksBase. Accessed October 2009. Available:

Goddard, Jerome and Blake Layton. 2006. A Guide to the ticks of Mississippi. Mississippi. Agriculture and Forestry Experiment Station. Bulletin 1150.

Gregson, John D. 1956.  The Ixodoidea of Canada. Publication 930. Canada Department of Agriculture, Entomology Division. Ottawa.

Higgins 1999. Common Ticks of the Cariboo-Chilcotin and other parts of British Columbia. Cordillera 27: 28-32.

ICTTD 2009. TicksBase. International Consortium on Ticks and Tick-born Diseases. Available:

Keith, Lloyd B. and John R. Cary. 1990. Interaction of the tick Haemaphysalis leporispalustris with a cyclic Snowshoe Hare (Lepus americanus) population. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 26 (4): 427-434.

Kohls, G.M. and H. Hoogstraal, 1960.  Observations on the subgenus Argas (Ixodoidea, Argasidae, Argas) 2. A. cooleyi, new species, from western North American birds.  Annals of the Entomological Society of America 53(5): 625-631.

Kollars, Thomas M. and James H. Oliver. 2003. Host associations and seasonal occurrence of Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes brunneus, I. cookei, I. dentatus, and I. texanus (Acari: Ixodidae) in southeastern Missouri. Journal of Medical Entemology 40 (1):  103-107.

Koprowski, John L. 1994. Scurius niger. Mammalian Species. No 479. pp. 1-9. American Society of Mammalogists. Available:

Lee Richard E. Jr. and John G. Baust. 1987. Cold-Hardiness in the Antarctic Tick, Ixodes uriae. The University of Chicago Press.

Morshed M. G. , Scott J. D., Fernando K. , et al. 2005. Migratory songbirds disperse ticks across Canada, and first isolation of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, from the avian tick, Ixodes auritulus. Journal of Parasitology 91:780–90.

Niebylski, Mark L., Merry E. Schrumpf, Willy Burgdorfer, Elizabeth R. Fischer, Kenneth L. Gage, and Tom D. Schwan. 1997. Rickettsia peacockii sp. nov., a New Species Infecting Wood Ticks, Dermacentor andersoni, in Western Montana. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 47 (1997): 446-452.

Nuttall, P. A.   1984.  Seabird  7:  Tickborne viruses from Seabird colonies. 31-41. Available:  Accessed October 14 2009.

Olsen, Bjorn, Thomas G. T. Jaenson, Laila Noppa, Jonas Bunikis and Sven Bergströn. 1993. A Lyme borreliosis cycle in seabirds and Ixodes uriae ticks. Nature 362, 340 - 342.

Ouellette, J. C. S. Apperson, P. Howard, T. L. Evans, and J. F. Levine. 1997. Tick-raccoon associations and the potential for Lyme Disease spirochete transmission in the coastal plain of North Carolina. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 33 (1): 28-39.

Pickens, Edgar G., Robert K. Gerloff and Willy Burgdorfer. 1968. Spirochete from the Rabbit Tick Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard) I. Isolation and Preliminary Characterization. Journal of Bacteriology 95 (2): 291-299.

Plaffenberger, G. S. 1984. Ixodes soricis Gregson Recovered from the Dwarf
Shrew in New Mexico. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 20 (1): 64.

Public Health Agency of Canada. 2009. Distribution of Ixodes pacificus and Ixodes scapularis re Concurrent Babesiosis and Lyme Disease. Available:

Salkeld, D. J., R. J. Eisen, M. F. Antolin, P Stapp, and L. Eisen. 2006. Host usage and seasonal activity patterns of Ixodes kingi and I. sculptus (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs in a Colorado prairie landscape, with a summary of published North American host records for all life stages. Vector Ecology 31(1):168-80.

Samuels, William A., Alan Kocan, Margo J. Pybus, and John William Davis. 2001. Parasitic Diseases of Wild Mammals. Blackwell Publishing Company, Ames, Iowa.

|Shariat, Bridget M., Freimund, Jennifer A., Wright, Stephen M., Murphree, C. Steven, Thomas, Jennifer T. 2007. Borrelia infection rates in winter ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) removed from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Cheatham County, Tennessee. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Sciences, July 1, 2007.

Wheeler, Charles M.  1943.  A contribution to the biology of Ornithodoros hermsi Wheeler, Herms and Meyer.

Wikipedia. 2009. Argus persicus page. Accessed October 2009. Available:

Zeidner, N., Burkot, T. R., Massung, R., Nicholson, W. L. Dolan, M. C., Rutherford, J. S., Biggerstaff, B. J. and Maupin G. O. 2000. Transmission of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis by Ixodes spinipalpis ticks: evidence of an enzootic cycle of dual infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in Northern Colorado. Journal of Infectious Diseases182(2):616-619.

Please cite these pages as:

Author, date, page title. In:   Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2023. E-Fauna BC: Electronic Atlas of the Fauna of British Columbia []. Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. [Date Accessed]

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