Mapping Species Distributions


Climate Change Effects on Arctic Plant species

Valerie Tomlinson
Aurora Research Institute Librarian

Prepared for the Canadian Botanical Association, Conservation Committee

The aim of this bibliography is to summarize research on the effects of climate change on plant life in the arctic (focusing on the North American western Arctic). The starting point for the material was the files of research licensed in the NWT through the Aurora Research Institute, and expanding outward from there. The first section focuses most closely on the effects of climate change on plant life in the western arctic, but much of the research in the files was more general than that, so there is also a section on more general climate change research (still linked to the initial idea, but not necessarily western arctic, or plant specific). Similarly, there is also a more general section on arctic plant research, still linked with the initial idea, but not necessarily climate change specific. The CBA was also interested in the issues of rare plants and invasive species in the Canadian Arctic. Climate change could be having a significant impact there, so there is a small section each on both of those topics. The specific topic of “the effects of climate change on invasive species and rare plants in the western Canadian Arctic” was a little too narrow to find anything, which is why it was broadened it to the above categories (although this provides suggestions for some future research). The idea is to summarize the research in an accessible way in order to present it to political leaders, the media, and thus the general public, to demonstrate that there are real, measurable impacts of climate warming happening right now in our own country, and what effect that may have on Canadians inside and outside of the arctic, with the hopes of generating some action.

Separate bibliographies are presented below for climate change effects on arctic plants, rare arctic plants, invasive plants in the arctic and general references on climate change.

Bibliography of Climate Change Effects on Arctic Plants

ACIA, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (2004), Impacts of a Warming Arctic, Cambridge University Press.

Aerts, R.;Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Dorrepaal, E. et al. 2004.Effects of experimentally imposed climate scenarios on flowering phenology and flower production of subarctic bog species. Global Change Biology, 10: 1599-1609.

Aerts, R.;Cornelissen, J.; Dorrepaal, E. 2006.Plant performance in a warmer world: general responses of plants from cold, northern biomes and the importance of winter and spring events. Vegetatio, 182(1-2): 65-77.

Aerts, R.;Cornelissen, J.;Logtestijn, R.;Callaghan, T. 2007. Climate change has only a minor impact on nutrient resorption parameters in a high-latitude peatland. Oecologia, 151(1): 132-139.

Amiro, B.D., et al. 2001.Fire, climate change, carbon and fuel management in the Canadian boreal forest. Int. J. Wildl. Fire, 10: 405-413.

Anisimov, Oleg and Fitzharris, Blair, [eds.], J.O. Hagen et al. [2001] Polar Regions (Arctic and Antarctic). Response of Arctic Plant Communities, p. 825-826.

Arft, A.M., et al. 1999. Responses of tundra plants to experimental warming: meta-analysis of the international tundra experiment. Ecological Monographs, 69: 491–511.

Asselin, H., Payette, S. 2006. Origin and long-term dynamics of a subarctic tree line. Écoscience, 13(2): 135-142.

Asselin, Hugo. 2005. Dynamique végétale d'une toposéquence subarctique. Interaction entre le climat et les incendies forestiers. Ph.D. thesis. Université Laval.

Ball, T.F. 1986. Historical evidence and climatic implications of a shift in the boreal forest-tundra transition central Canada. Climatic Change, 8: 121-134.

Barber, V.J., Juday, G.P., Finney, B. 2000. Reduced growth of Alaskan White Spruce in the 20th Century from temperature induced drought stress. Nature, 405: 688-673.

Baxter, Gregory James. 1995. Climate change and fire danger. Master’s Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Alberta.

Bean, David, and Henry, Greg. 2004. Climate change impacts on tundra ecosystems. CANTTEX. EMAN-North Information Centre.

Bean, David, Henry, Greg, and Rolf, Sandra. 2003. Canadian tundra and taiga experiment: ecological monitoring in the Canadian Arctic: CANTTEX field manual. [Whitehorse, YT], EMAN North.

Beringer, J. et al. 2005. Surface energy exchanges along a tundra-forest transition and feedbacks to climate. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 131: 143-340.

Björn, L.O. et al. 1997. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on sub-Arctic vegetation. In: Ecology of Arctic Environments [Woodin, S.J. and M. Marquiss (eds.)]. Blackwell Science, Oxford, United Kingdom, pp. 241–253.

Björn, L.O. et al. 1999. Effects of ozone depletion and increased ultraviolet-B radiation on northern vegetation. Polar Research. 18: 331–337.

Bliss, S.C. and Peterson, K.M. 1992. Plant succession, competition, and the physiological constraints of species in the Arctic. Chapin, F.S. et al. (eds.), Arctic ecosystems in a changing climate: an ecophysiological perspective. San Diego. Academic Press, p.111-136

Bret-Hart, M.S., Shaver, G.R., Chapin, III, F.S. 2002. Primary and secondary stem growth in arctic shrubs: implications for community response to environmental change. Journal of Ecology, 90: 251-267.

Bret-Hart, M.S., et al. 2001. Developmental plasticity allows Betula nana to dominate tundra subject to an altered environment. Ecology, 82: 18-32.

Brown, Peter. 2004. Partitioning net CO2 fluxes between the overstorey and understorey of a northern boreal forest. Master’s thesis. Trent University.

Burkett, V.R., et al. 2005. Non-linear dynamics in ecosystem response to climatic change: case studies and policy implications. Ecological complexity, 2: 357-394.

Caccianiga, M., Payette, S., 2006. Recent advance of white spruce (Picea glauca) in the coastal tundra of the eastern shore of Hudson Bay (Québec, Canada). Journal of Biogeography, 33: 2120-2135.

Calef, Monika P. et al. 2005. Analysis of vegetation distribution in Interior Alaska and sensitivity to climate change using a logistic regression approach. Journal of Biogeography, 32(5): 863-878.

Callaghan, T. V., Jonasson, S. 1995. Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and environmental change. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A, 352: 259-276.

Callaghan, T. V. et al. 2005. Arctic tundra and polar desert ecosystems. Arctic Climate Impacts Assessment: scientific report, 243-352.

Camill, Philip. 1999. Patterns of boreal permafrost peatland vegetation across environmental gradients sensitive to climate warming. Can. J. Bot.77(5):721–733.

Camill, P., and Clark, J.S. 2000. Long-term perspectives on lagged ecosystem response to climate change: permafrost in boreal peatlands and the grassland/woodland boundary. Ecosystems, 3: 534-544.

Canadian Forest Service. 2002.  Climate Change and Fire and Insect Disturbances in Canada's Forest.  (SSC-FO42-333/2002) Ottawa, Ontario : Canadian Forest Service. 

CAVM team.2003. Circumpolar arctic vegetation maps. US Fish and Wildlife Service.

Chambers, S. D. and Chapin, F. S.III.  2003.  Fire effects on surface-atmosphere energy exchange in Alaskan black spruce ecosystems: Implications for feedbacks to regional climate.  Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres 108(D1):FFR 1.1-1.17.

Chapin, F.S. III and G.R. Shaver. 1985. Individualistic growth response of tundra plant species to environmental manipulations in the field. Ecology. 66: 564–576.

Chapin, F.S. III, et al. (eds.) Physiological ecology of arctic plants: implications for climate change. New York, Academic Press.

Chapin, F.S. III, et al. (eds.). 1992. Arctic ecosystems in a changing climate: an ecophysiological perspective. San Diego: Academic Press.

Chapin, F.S. III, G.R. Shaver, A.E. Giblin, K.G. Nadelhoffer, and J.A. Laundre. 1995. Response of arctic tundra to experimental and observed changes in climate. Ecology 76(3) 694-711.

Chapin, F.S. III, M.S. Bret-Harte, S.E. Hobbie, and H. Zhong. 1996. Plant functional types as predictors of the transient response of arctic vegetation to global change. Journal of Vegetation Science. 7: 347–358.

Chapin, F. Stuart, III, and Shaver, Gaius R., 1996. Physiological and growth responses of arctic plants to a field experiment simulating climate change. Ecology, 77(3): 822-840.

Chapin, F.S. III and A.M. Starfield. 1997. Time lags and novel ecosystems in response to transient climatic change in arctic Alaska. Climatic Change. 35: 449–461.

Chapin , F.S. III, J.P. McFadden, and S.E. Hobbie. 1997. The role of arctic vegetation in ecosystem and global processes. In: Ecology of Arctic Environments [Woodin, S.J. and M. Marquiss (eds.)]. Blackwell Science, Oxford, United Kingdom, pp. 97–112.

Chapin, F.S. III, et al. 2000.Summer differences among arctic ecosystems in a regional climate forcing. J. Climate, 13: 2002-2010.

Chapin, F.S. III, et al. 2004. Global change and boreal forest: thresholds, shifting states or gradual change? Ambio, 33: 361-365.

Christensen, T.R., et al. 2004. Thawing sub-arctic permafrost: effects on vegetation and methane emissions. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L04501, doi:10.1029/2003GL018680.

Clair, Thomas A. 2000. Climate change and ecosystem research in Canada's North: a report to the Northern Ecosystem Initiative Management Team. Environment Canada Atlantic Region, occasional report No. 13.

Clarke, Karin M. 2004. Phenological growth and reproductive responses to climatic variability and experimental warming in 8 Arctic plant species. Master’s thesis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia. ARI file# 12 402 519.

Clein, J.S. et al. 2000. Modelling carbon response of tundra ecosystems to historical and projected climate: a comparison of plot- and global-scale ecosystem models to identify process based uncertainties. Global Change Biology, 6: 127-140.

Cohen, S.J. (ed.) 1997. Mackenzie Basin Impact Study – Final report. Environment Canada, Atmospheric Environment Service.

Cornelissen, J.H.C., Callaghan, T.V., Alatalo, J.M. et al. 2001. Global change and arctic ecosystem: is lichen decline a function of increases in vascular plant biomass? Journal of Ecology, 89, 984-994.

Crawford, R.M.M., Chapman, H.M., Abbott, R.J. and Balfour, J. 1993. Potential impact of climate warming on arctic vegetation. Flora, 188:367-388.

Crawford, R.M.M., and Abbott, R.J. 1994. Pre-adaptation of arctic plants to climate change. Botanica Acta 107: 271-278

Danby, Ryan K.,Hik, David S. 2007 Responses of white spruce (Picea glauca) to experimental warming at a subarctic alpine treeline. Global Change Biology, 13(2): 437-451.

Danby, Ryan K.,Hik, David S. 2007. Variability, contingency and rapid change in recent subarctic alpine tree line dynamics. Journal of Ecology, 95(2): 352-363.

Dormann, C. F.;Woodin, S. J. 2002. Climate change in the Arctic: using plant functional types in a meta-analysis of field experiments. Functional Ecology, 16(1): 4-17.

Dormann, Carsten F.,van der Wal, René,Woodin, Sarah J. 2004. Neighbour identity modifies effects of elevated temperature on plant performance in the High Arctic. Global Change Biology, 10(9: 1587-1598.

Dorrepaal, E., Aerts, R.,Cornelissen, J.H.C., et al. 2003. Summer warming and increased winter snow cover affect Sphagnum fuscum growth, structure and production in a sub-arctic bog. Global Change Biology, 10: 93-104.

Dorrepaal, E., et al. 2006. Sphagnum modifies climate-change impacts on subarctic vascular bog plants. Functional Ecology, 20(1): 31-41.

Edlund, S.A., B.T. Alt, and K.L. Young. 1989. Interaction of climate, vegetation, and soil hydrology at Hot Weather Creek, Fosheim Peninsula, Ellesmere Island, Northwest Territories. In: Current Research 1989-D. Ottawa: Geological Survey of Canada.

Epstein, H. E., Walker, M.D., Chapin, F.S.III, et al. 2000. A transient nutrient-based model of arctic plant community response to climate warming. Ecological Applications, 10: 824-841.

Epstein, Howard E. et al. 2004. Detecting changes in arctic tundra plant communities in response to warming over decadal time scales. Global Change Biology, 10(8): 1325-1334.

M.D. Flannigan, B.D. Amiro, K.A. Logan, B.J. Stocks and B.M. Wotton. 2005. Forest fires and climate change in the 21st century. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change (2005) 11: 847–859.

Fleming, R.A. and Volney, J.A. 1995. Effects of climate change on insect defoliator population processes in Canada’s boreal forest: some plausible scenarios. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 82: 445–454.

Fleming, R.A. 2000. Climate change and insect disturbance regimes in Canada’s boreal forests. World Resources Review, 12: 520-554.

Fosberg, M. A.,/ Stocks, B. J., and Lynham, T. J. 1996. Risk analysis in strategic planning: Fire and climate change in the boreal forest. Fire in Ecosystems of Boreal Eurasia, (Forestry sciences ; 48 ) Kluwer Academic Publishers; Boston.  pp.495-504.

Gamache, Isabelle. 2003. Homogénéité génétique et hétérogénéité écologique du couvert forestier subarctique du nord du Québec face aux changements climatiques. Ph.D. thesis. Université Laval.

Gamache, I., Payette, S., 2004. Height growth response of tree line black spruce to recent climate warming across the forest-tundra of eastern Canada. Journal of Ecology, 92: 835-845.

Gamache, I., Payette, S., 2005. Latitudinal response of subarctic tree lines to recent climate change in eastern Canada. Journal of Biogeography, 32: 849-862.

Gehrke, C. et al. 1995. The impact of enhanced ultraviolet B radiation on litter quality and decomposition processes in Vaccinium leaves from the Subarctic. Oikos, 72: 213–222.

Gehrke, C. et al. 1996. Effects of enhanced ultraviolet B radiation on terrestrial subarctic ecosystems and implications for interactions with increased atmospheric CO2. Ecological Bulletin, 45: 192–203.

Gignac, L.D., B.J. Nicholson and S. E. Bayley. The utilization of bryophytes in bioclimatic modeling: present distribution of peatlands in the Mackenzie River Basin, Canada. The Bryologist, 101: 560-571

Gignac, L.D., B.J. Nicholson and S. E. Bayley. The utilization of bryophytes in bioclimatic modeling: projected northward migration of peatlands in the Mackenzie River Basin, Canada, as a result of global warming. The Bryologist, 101: 572-587.

Gignac, L.D., Vitt, D.H., Zoltai, S.C, and Bayley, S.E. 1991. Bryophyte response surfaces along climatic, chemical, and physical gradients in peatlands of western Canada. Nova Hedwigia, 53: 27-71.

Gillett, N.P., et al. 2004. Detecting the effect of climate change on Canadian forest fires. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(18): L18211, doi: 10.1092/2004GL020876.

Goetz, S.J. et al. 2005. Satellite-observed photosynthetic trends across boreal North America associated with climate and fire disturbance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102-38, 13521-13535

Gorham, E. 1988. Canada’s peatlands: their importance for global carbon cycle and possible effects of greenhouse climatic warming. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada Series V 3: 21-23.

Gorsuch, D.M., Oberbauer, S.F. 2002. Effects of mid-season frost and elevated growing season temperature on stomatal conductance and specific xylem conductivity of the arctic shrub Salix pulchra. Tree Physiology, 22: 1027-1034.

Gould, W. A., Raynolds, M., Walker, D. A. 2003. Vegetation, plant biomass, and net primary productivity patterns in the Canadian Arctic. Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 108, no. D2, 8167, doi:10.1029/2001jd000948.

Grace, J., Berninger, F., and Nagy, L. 2002. Impacts of climate change on the tree line. Annals of Botany, 90: 537-544.

Graglia, E. et al. 2001. Effects of environmental perturbations on abundance of subarctic plants after three, seven, and ten years of treatments. Ecography, 24: 5-12.

Graglia, E., et al. 2001. Environmental control and intersite variations of phenolics in Betula nana in tundra ecosystems. New PHytologust, 151:227-236.

Groot, W.J. de, and Wein, Ross W. 1999. Betula glandulosa Michx. response to burning and postfire growth temperature and implications of climate change. Int. J. Wildland Fire 9(1): 51-64.

de Groot, W.J.; Bothwell, P.M.; Logan, K. 2002. Simulation of altered fire regimes and impacts on boreal carbon dynamics. Pages 29–40 in C.H. Shaw and M.J. Apps, eds. Proceedings of The Role of Boreal Forests and Forestry in the Global Carbon Budget. Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB

Hansell R.I.C. et al. 1998. Atmospheric Change and Biodiversity in the Arctic. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 49(2-3): 303-325.

Havström, M., Callaghan, T.V., and Jonasson, S. 1993. Differential growth responses of Cassiope tetragona, an arctic dwarf shrub, to environmental perturbations among three contrasting high and sub-arctic sites. Oikos. 66: 389–402.

Henry, Gregory H.R. Tundra ecosystem responses to climate variability and change: Observational and experimental results. ARI file #12 402 421.

Henry, G.H.R. (ed.) 1997. The International Tundra Experiment (ITEX): Short-term Responses of Tundra Plants to Experimental Warming. Global Change Biology, 3(Suppl. 1): 164 p.

Henry, G.H.R., and Molau, U., 1997. Tundra plants and climate change: the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX). Global Change Biology. 3 (Supp. 1): 1-9.

ARI file #12 402 421.

Hett, Pippa Secombe. [1999]. Effects of Long-term Warming Experiments on Species Abundance and Diversity in High Arctic. Master’s Thesis. University of British Columbia.

Higuera, P.E., et al. 2005. Vegetational and climatic influences on fire regimes in the southern Brooks Range, Alaska. USGS workshop on fire history and climate synthesis in western North America, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA, p.17.

Hinzman, Larry D., Fukuda, Masami, Sandberg, David V., Chapin, F. Stuart III , and Dash, David. 2003.  Frostfire: An experimental approach to predicting the climate feedbacks from the changing boreal fire regime.  Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres  108(D1):FFR 9.1-9.6.

Hinzman, L. et al. 2005. Evidence and implications of recent climate change in northern Alaska and other arctic regions. Climate change, 72: 251-298.

Hobbie, S.H. 1996. Temperature and plant species control over litter decomposition in Alaskan tundra. Ecol. Monogr. 66: 503-522.

Hobbie, S.H., Chapin, F.S.III. 1998. The response of tundra plant biomass, aboveground production, nitrogen, and CO2 flux to experimental warming. Ecology, 79(5):1526-1544.

Hogenbirk, J.C. and Wein, R.W. 1991. Fire and drought experiments in northern wetlands: a climate change analogue. Can. J. Bot. 69: 1991-1997.

Hogenbirk, John C., Wein, Ross W. 1995.  Fire in the boreal wet-meadows: Implications for climate change.  Proceedings: Nineteenth Annual Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference. Tallahassee, FL :Tall Timbers Research Station.  pp21-29.

Hogenbirk, J.C. and Wein, R.W. 1992. Temperature effects on seedling emergence from boreal wetland soils: Implication for climate change. Aquatic Bot. 42: 361-373.

Hogg, E.H., Lieffers, V.J., and Wein, R.W. 1992. Potential carbon losses from peat profiles: effects of temperature, drought cycles, and fire. Ecological Applications 2(3): 298-306.

Hollister, Robert D. 2003. Response of tundra vegetation to temperature: implications for forecasting vegetation change. Ph.D. Thesis. Michigan State University.

Hollister, Robert D.;Webber, Patrick J.;Bay, C. 2005. Plant response to temperature in Northern Alaska: implications for predicting vegetation change. Ecology, 86: 1562-1570.

Hollister, Robert D.;Webber, Patrick J.;Tweedie, Craig E. 2005. The response of Alaskan arctic tundra to experimental warming: differences between short- and long-term responses. Global Change Biology, 11(4): 525-536.

Holtmeier, F.K. and Broll, G. 2005. Sensitivity and response of northern hemisphere altitudinal and polar tree lines to environmental change at landscape and local scales. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 14: 395-410.

Hu, Feng, et al. 2006. How Climate and Vegetation Influence the fire Regime of the Alaskan Boreal Biome: The Holocene Perspective. Mitigation and Adaptation Stretegies for Global Change, 11(4): 829-846.

Hyvönen, Riitta, et al. 2007. The likely impact of elevated [CO2], nitrogen deposition, increased temperature and management on carbon sequestration in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems: a literature review. New Phytologist, 173(3): 463-480.

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Jonasson, S., et al. 1999. Responses in microbes and plants to changed temperature, nutrient, and light regimes in the arctic. Ecology, 80 (6): 1828-1843.

Jones, Michael Hunt. 1995. Experimental investigations into effects of climate change on high Arctic plants. PhD thesis, Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta.

Jones, M.H., MacDonald, S.E.,and Henry, G.H.R., 1999. Sex- and habitat-specific responses of a high arctic willow, Salix arctica, to experimental climate change. Oikos, 87: 129-138.

Jones, M.H., Bay, C., Nordenhäll, U. 1997. Effects of experimental warming on Arctic willows (Salix spp.): a comparison of responses from the Canadian high arctic, Alaskan arctic, and Swedish subarctic. Global Change Biology, 3(suppl.1): 55-60.

Johnstone, J., 1996? An assessment for the Northern Yukon ecological knowledge co-operative of potential plant indicators of climate change. Cassiopeia Research Services, 21 p.

Juday, G.P. et al. 2003. A 200-year perspective of climate variability and response of white spruce in interior Alaska. In: Climate variability and ecosystem response at long-term ecological research sites. Greenland, D., Goodin, D.G. and Smith, R.C. (eds.) pp. 226-250. Oxford University Press.

Kadonaga, Lisa. 1992. Climate change and forest fire occurrence in Canada's Northwest Territories: Forecasting possible futures. M.Sc. thesis, University of Guelph.

Kaplan, Jed;New, Mark. 2006. Arctic climate change with a 2°C global warming: timing, climate patterns and vegetation change. Climatic Change 79 (3-4): 213-241.

Keyser, A.R., et al. 2000. Simulating the effects of climate change on the carbon balance of North American high latitude forests. Global Change Biology, 6(1): 185-195.

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Kimball, J.;Zhao, M.;McDonald, K.;Running, S. 2006. Satellite Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Net Primary Production for the Pan-Arctic Basin and Alaska. Mitigation and Adaptation Stretegies for Global Change, 11(4): 783-804.

Kittel, T.G.F., Steffen, W.L., and Chapin, F.S. III. 2000. Global and regional modeling of Arctic-boreal vegetation distribution and its sensitivity to altered forcing. Global Change Biology, 6 (Suppl.1)1-18.

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Landhäusser, Simon M., and Wein, Ross W. 1993. Postfire vegetation recovery and tree establishment at the arctic treeline: climate-change-vegetation-response hypotheses. J. Ecol. 81: 665-672.

Landhäusser, Simon M. 1994. Climate change and the Arctic treeline. PhD thesis, Department of Forest Science, University of Alberta.

Lange, Petra. 1992 (1993?). Fire and climate change on the instability and revegetation of permafrost soils. Thesis, Diplomarbeit der Fakultät für Biologie der Universität Tübingen. Research report to the Science Institute of the Northwest Territories, Inuvialuit Land Administration and Polar Continental Shelf.

Lavoie, C. and Payette, S. 1992. Black spruce growth forms as a record of a changing winter environment, Quebec, Canada. Arctic and Alpine Research. 24: 40-49.

Liston, G.E., et al. 2002. Modelled changes in arctic tundra snow, energy, and moisture fluxes due to increased shrubs. Global Change Biology, 8: 17-32.

Litvak, Marcy, et al. 2003. Effect of stand age on whole ecosystem CO2 exchange in the Canadian boreal forest.  Journal of Geophysical Research 108(D3):WFX 6.1-6.11.

Lloyd, A.H. 2005. Ecological histories from Alaska tree lines provide insight into future change. Ecology, 86: 1687-1695.

Lloyd, A.H. and Fastie, C.L. 2002. Spatial and temporal variability in tree growth and climate response of treeline trees in Alaska. Climate Change, 52: 481-509.

Lloyd, A.H. and Fastie, C.L. 2003. Recent changes in tree line forest distribution and structure in interior Alaska. Ecoscience, 10: 176-185.

Lynch, J.A., Hu, F.S. Hui, A. 2004. Does vegetation mediate the fire-climate relationship in boreal regions? International Boreal Forest Research Association 12th annual scientific conference, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, p.133.

MacDonald, G.M., Szeicz, J.M., Claricoates, J. and Dale, K.A. 1998. Response of the central Canadian treeline to recent climatic changes. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 88: 183-209.

MacDonald, K.C., et al.2004. Variability in springtime thaw in the terrestrial high latitudes: monitoring a major control on the biospheric assimilation of atmospheric CO2 with spaceborne microwave remote sensing. Earth Interactions 8(20): 1-23.

Mack, M.C., et al. 2004. Ecosystem carbon storage in arctic tundra reduced by long term nutrient fertilization. Nature, 431: 440-443.

Marchand, F.L. et al. 2005.Performance of high arctic tundra plants improved during but deteriorated after exposure to a simulated extreme temperature event. Global Change Biology, 11: 2078-2089.

Marchand, F.L. et al. 2006.Are heat and cold resistance of arctic species affected by successive extreme temperature events? New Phytologist, 172(2): 291-300.

Marchand, F.L. et al. 2006.Disentangling effects of an experimentally imposed extreme temperature event and naturally associated desiccation on Arctic tundra. Functionial Ecology,  20(6): 917-928.

McCoy, Vickie. 2002. Climate change and forest fires in Yukon Territory. M.A. thesis, Carleton University.

McCulloch, James A. W. 1990. Arctic and global change: proceedings of the Symposium on the Arctic and Global Change. Washington, D. C.  The Climate Institute.

McFadden, J.P., Eugster, W., and Chapin, III., F.S. 2003. A regional study of the controls on water vapour and CO2 fluxes in arctic tundra. Journal of Ecology, 84: 2762-2776.

McGuire, A.D., et al. 2000. Modelling carbon responses of tundra ecosystems to historical and projected climate: sensitivity of pan-Arctic carbon storage to temporal and spatial variation in climate. Global Change Biology, 6 (Suppl.1): 141-159.

McGuire, A.D., et al. 2002. Environmental variation, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics and water/energy exchange at high latitudes. Journal of Vegetation Science. 13:301-314.

McGuire, A.D., et al. 2002. Land cover disturbances and feedbacks to the climate system in Canada and Alaska. In: Land change science. G. Gutman et al. (eds.) Springer, pp.139-161.

McKane, Robert B., et al. 1997. Climatic effects on tundra carbon storage inferred from experimental data and a model. Ecology, 78(4):1170-1187.

Molau, U. 1996. Climatic impacts on flowering, growth, and vigour in an arctic-alpine cushion plant, Diapensia lapponica , under different snow cover regimes. Ecological Bulletins. 45: 210–219.

Molau, U. 2001. Tundra plant responses to experimental and natural temperature changes. Memoirs of National Institute of Polar Research, special issue, No.54: 445-466.

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Neuvonen, S., Niemelä, P., and Virtanen, T. 1999. Climate change and insect outbreaks in boreal forests: the role of winter temperatures. Ecological Bulletins. 47: 63–67.

Nichols, H. 2000. Circumpolar warming effects on tree-line reproduction in Canada and Siberia. In Conard,S.G.(ed.) "Disturbance in Boreal Forest Ecosystems: Human Impacts and Natural Processes." International Boreal Forest Research Association 1997 Meetings Proceedings, US Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, St. Paul, Minn., pp. 279-287.

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More general climate change references

Aaby, B. 1976. Cyclic climatic variations in climate over the past 5500 years reflected in raised bogs. Nature, 263: 281-284.

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Flannigan, M. et al. 2006. Forest Fires and Climate Change in the 21ST Century. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 11(4): 847-859.

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Fukuda, Masami. 2004. The wildfires of Siberia accelerate global warming: Aggravating wildfires in Siberia. The New Era of the Study of the Japan Sea, edited by Itaru Koizumi et al.  hatsubai Kadokawa Shoten; Tokyo.  pp.207-216.

Grogan, Paul;Jonasson, Sven. 2005. Temperature and substrate controls on intra-annual variation in ecosystem respiration in two subarctic vegetation types. Global Change Biology, 11(3): 465-475.

Hassol, Susan Joy. 2004. Impacts of a warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Fairbanks: International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Cambridge, U.K., New York, N.Y., Cambridge University Press.

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Ladeau, Shannon l.;Clark, James S. 2006. Elevated CO2 and tree fecundity: the role of tree size, interannual variability, and population heterogeneity. Global Change Biology, 12(5): 822-833.

Laine, K. et al. 1995. Effect of changing snow cover on some ecophysiological parameters in Vaccinium myrtillus under nitrogen overdose conditions. In: Global Change and Arctic Terrestrial Ecosystems [Callaghan, T.V. et al. (eds.)]. Ecosystems Research Report 10. European Commission, Luxembourg, pp. 123–124.

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Richardson, S.J., et al. 2002. How do nutrients and warming impact on plant communities and insect herbivores? A 9-year study from a sub-arctic heath. J. Ecol., 90: 544-556.

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Rouse, Wayne R. et al.  1997. Effects of climate change on the fresh waters of arctic and subarctic North America. Hydrological Processes 11: 873-902.

Ryan, K.C. 1989. Climate change, fire and natural vegetation: implications for wilderness areas. Wilderness and Wildfire. Misc. Publication 50, Misoula, Montana, University of Montana School of Forestry.  pp.18-21

Scott, Daniel, and Suffling, Roger (eds.). 2000. Climate change and Canada's national park system : a screening level assessment. Prepared by the Adaptation & Impacts Research Group, Environment Canada and the Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Waterloo. Ottawa. Parks Canada.

Scott, Daniel J. 2003. Climate change and Canada's national park system: scenarios & impacts. Prepared by the Adaptation & Impacts Research Group, Environment Canada and the Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Waterloo. Halifax. Parks Canada, Atlantic Region

Singh, T., and Higginbotham, K.O. 1988. An overview of the effects of climate change and climatic variability on forest vegetation in Western Canada. Impact of climate variability and change on the Canadian Prairies. Alberta Environment, Edmonton, 255-274.

Straussfogel, Debra. 2006. Exploring the Theoretical Interface of Climate Change and Resource Dependency: Application to the Vulnerability of Boreal Forest Regions. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 11(4): 911-931.

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Zoltai, S.C. and Martikainen P.J. 1996. Estimated extent of forested peatlands and their role in the global carbon cycle. Pages 47-58 in: Forest Ecosystems, Forest Management and the Global Carbon Cycle. M.J. Apps and D.T. Price (eds.). NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series, Vol. I40, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg.


Bibliography of rare arctic plant species

Argus, G.W., and K.M. Pryer. 1990. Rare vascular plants in Canada: Our natural heritage. Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 191 p. + maps.

Brysting A.K. et al. 2003. Dupontia (Poaceae) in North America. Canadian Journal of Botany, 81(8): 769-779.

Douglas, G.W., G.W. Argus, H.L. Dickson, and D.F. Brunton. 1981. The rare vascular plants of the Yukon. Syllogeus No. 28. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 61 p. + maps.

Douglas, G.W., G.W. Argus, H.L. Dickson, and D.F. Brunton, 1981. Les plantes vasculaires rares du Yukon. Ottawa, Musees Nationaux du Canada, 61+ p.

Kjølner S. et al. 2004. Amplified fragment length polymorphism versus random amplified polymorphic DNA markers: clonal diversity in Saxifraga cernua. Molecular Ecology, 13(1): 81-86.

McJannet, C.L., Argus, G.W., and Cody, W.J. 1995. Rare vascular plants in the Northwest Territories. Syllogeus no.73. Canadian Museum of Nature. Ottawa.

Murray, D.F. 1980. Threatened and endangered plants of Alaska. U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management. 59 p.

Murray, D.F. and R. Lipkin. 1987. Candidate threatened and endangered plants of Alaska with comments on other rare plants. Univ. of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, AK. 76 p.

Talbot, S. S., B. A. Yurtsev, D. F. Murray, G. W. Argus, C. Bay and A. Elvebakk. 1999. Atlas of the rare endemic vascular plants of the arctic. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) Technical Report Number 3. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska, 99503, iv + 73 p.

Tate, Douglas. 2003. Status and occurrence of Nahanni Aster (Symphyotricum nahanniense) in Nahanni National Park Reserve and vicinity. Parks Canada (not published?). ARI file# 12 402 687*.


Bibliography of invasive plant species in the arctic

Cody, William. J., and Talbot, Stephen, S. 1978. Vascular plant range extensions to the Heart Lake area, District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories. Can. Field-Nat. 92(2): 137-143.

Cody, W.J. 1978. Range extensions and comments on the vascular flora of the continental Northwest Territories. Can. Field-Nat. 92: 144-150.

Cody, W. J., K. L. MacInnes, J. Cayouette, and S. Darbyshire. 2000. Alien and Invasive Native Vascular Plants Along the Norman Wells Pipeline, District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories. Canadian Field- Naturalist 114 (1): 126-137.

Hustich, I. 1971. The introduced flora element in central Quebec-Labrador peninsula. Naturaliste Canadien 98: 425-441.

Rabeler, R. K. and J. W. Thieret. 1997. Sagina (Caryophyllaceae) range extensions in Canada: S. japonica new to Newfoundland; S. procumbens new to the Northwest Territories. Canadian Field-Naturalist 111(2): 309-310.

Wein, Ross W. 1993. Non-native vascular plants of northwestern Canada - an initial survey. A research report to: Yukon, Science Institute of the NWT, and Inuvialuit Land Administration.


Bibliography of Arctic Plants

Abbot, Sean P. 1989. [collection of fungal flora in the southwestern NWT]. Report submitted to the Science Institute of the NWT.

Abbott, R.J., et al. 2000. Molecular analysis of plant refugia in the arctic. Science, 289: 1343-1346.

Aiken, S.G., Consaul, L.L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1996a. Grasses of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: a Delta database for interactive identification and illustrated information retrieval. Can. J. Bot. 74: 1812-1825.

Aiken, S.G., Consaul, L.L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1996b. Grasses of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval.

 Aiken, Susan G. et al. 1998. Saxifragaceae of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: a contribution to a DELTA database for interactive identification and illustrated information retrieval. Can. J. Bot.76(12):2020–2036.

Aiken, Susan G. et al. 1999. Flora of the Canadian Arctic archipelago: (plants collected in Aulavik National Park, 29 June – 13 July, 1999, during a Parks Canada patrol lead by Andrew Lawrence). [Canadian Museum of Nature] In: Sowerby, Engl. Bot. 35: t. 2516. 1813. ARI file# 12 402 616.

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Alpine Environmental. 2004. Post construction revegetation and soil monitoring report 2004, Paramount Shiha Pipeline. Project No. FN-01019-PL.01. Report submitted to ARI (file# 12 402 641)*.

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Bean, David, and Henry, Greg. 2001. Landscape-Level Patterns of Plant Growth and

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Bean, David. 2002. The spatial relationships among vegetation phenology, plant community composition and environment at a high arctic oasis. Master’s thesis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia.

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Bégin, C. 1991. Analyse architecturale et dendroécologique d’une pessière à lichens àla limite des forêts. Ph.D. thesis, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.

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Straley, G. B. 1986. Wild Bergamot, Monarda fistulosa (Lamiaceae) new to the Northwest Territories. Canadian Field-Naturalist 100 (3): 380 - 381.

Strang, R.M., 1973. Studies of vegetation, landform and permafrost in the Mackenzie Valley : some case histories of disturbance. Ottawa , Information Canada, 49 p.

Streisinger, Erwin. 1985. The Boothia - Zenith Point expedition. Report submitted to the Science institute of the NWT (file #12 402 298).

Swanson, D. K. 1996. Susceptibility of permafrost soils to deep thaw after forest fires in interior Alaska, U.S.A., and some ecologic implications. Arctic and Alpine Research  28(no.2):217-227.

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Talbot, S. S. 1987. Bryophytes from Nahanni National Park and vicinity, Northwest Territories, Canada. Can. J. Bot.65(3):592-597.

Taylor, Cindey Squires, Vegetation database of the Mackenzie Valley. (not published?) ARI file# 12 402 433

Thannheiser, Dietbert, 1972. New plant records from Boothia Isthmus and King William Island, NWT, Canada. Polarforschung 42(1): 50-55.

Thannheiser, Dietbert, 1976. Beach and bog vegetation on the Western Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Svalbard. Polarforschung 46(2): 71-82.

Thannheiser, Dietbert, 1986. Plant communities of the Western Canadian Arctic Archipelago and their distribution patterns. Report submitted to the SINT (file# 12 402 057)

Thannheiser, Dietbert, 1986. Floristische Studien auf Victoria Island, N.W.T. (Kanada). Polarforschung 56(1/2): 93-98.

Thieret, J.W. 1961. New plant records for southwestern District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories. Can. Field-Nat. 75: 111-121.

Thieret, J.W. 1962. New plant records from District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories. Can. Field-Nat. 76: 206-208.

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Thomson, J.W. 1970. Lichens from the vicinity of Coppermine, Northwest Territories. Can. Field-Nat. 84: 155-164.

Thomson, J.W. 1970. Lichens from the Bathurst Inlet region, Northwest Territories, Canada. Bryologist 86: 14-22.

Thomson, J.W. 1984. American Arctic lichens. Columbia University Press. New York.

Thomson, J.W. 1990. Lichens in the Canadian Arctic Islands. Canada’s missing dimension, vol. 1, p.385-420. Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa.

Timoney, K.P., La Roi, G.H., Zoltai, S.C. and Robinson, A.L. 1992. The high subarctic forest-tundra of northwestern Canada: Position, width, and vegetation gradients in relation to climate. Arctic 45:1-9.

Timoney, K.P. and Wein, Ross W. 1991. The areal pattern of burned tree vegetation in the subarctic region of northwestern Canada. Arctic 44(3): 223-230

Timoney, K.P., La Roi, G.H., Zoltai, S.C., and Robinson, A.L. 1993. Vegetation communities and plant distributions and their relationships with parent materials in the forest-tundra of northwestern Canada. Ecography 16:174-188.

Timony, K.P., La Roi, G.H. and Dale, M.R.T. 1993. Subarctic forest-tundra vegetation gradients: The sigmoid wave hypothesis. J. Veg. Sci. 4: 387-394.

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Trindade M., Greene D.F, Gravel M. 2002. Long-distance pollen dispersal of Picea mariana near Inuvik, NWT. Sustainable Forest Management Conference, Edmonton, Alberta.November 13-15, 2002. ARI file# 12 402 685.

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Wein, Ross W., and MacLean, D. A. 1973.  Cottongrass (Eriophorum vaginatum) germination requirements and colonizing potential in the Arctic.  Canadian Journal of Botany  51(12):2909-2513.

Wein, Ross W., et al. 1974. Vascular plant range extensions in the Northern Yukon Territory and Northwestern Mackenzie District, Canada. The Canadian Field Naturalist, Vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 57-66.

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Zoltai, S.C. and Pettapiece, W.W. 1974. Tree distribution on perennially frozen earth hummocks. Arctic and Alpine Research 6:403-411.

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* ARI file # refers to the file number used at the Aurora Research Institute, used to track research licensed in the NWT.


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